VIDYA - A JOURNAL OF GUJARAT UNIVERSITY https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya en-US vidya@gujaratuniversity.ac.in (Dr. Meenu Saraf) msaraf@gujaratuniversity.ac.in (Dr. Meenu Saraf) Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.13 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 CREDIT RISK ASSESSMENT USING DEFAULT MODELS: A REVIEW https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/78 <p>Credit risk, also known as default risk, is the likelihood of a corporation losing money if a business partner defaults. If the liabilities are not met under the terms of the contract, the firm may default, resulting in the loss of the company. There is no clear way to distinguish between organizations that will default and those that will not prior to default. We can only make probabilistic estimations of the risk of default at best. There are two types of credit risk default models in this regard: structural and reduced form models. Structural models are used to calculate the likelihood of a company defaulting based on its assets and liabilities. If the market worth of a company's assets is less than the debt it owes, it will default. Reduced form models often assume an external cause of default, such as a Poisson jump process, which is driven by a stochastic process. They model default as a random event with no regard for the balance sheet of the company. This paper provides a Review of credit risk default models.</p> George Godfrey Jumbe, Dr. Ravi Gor Copyright (c) 2022 VIDYA - A JOURNAL OF GUJARAT UNIVERSITY https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/78 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS IN SABARMATI RIVER: A CASE STUDY BEFORE AND DURING THE LOCKDOWN https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/16 <p>Sabarmati is one of the largest rivers in Gujarat and passes through cities like Gandhinagar and Ahmedabad. The municipal pollutants in the river comprise untreated domestic and sewage wastes. In contrast, industrial pollutants constitute the discharge of heavy metals into the river, responsible for increasing metal load in the water. Increasing heavy metal concentration in the water can cause severe problems. In this work, Cu, Mn, Fe, Cr, Zn, Pb, and Cd heavy metals were analyzed from the five selected sites for two years, 2020 and 2021, in Two seasons pre and post-monsoon. In 2020, there was a lockdown situation because of Covid-19, so all industrial the activities were shut down. Therefore pollution levels were decreased, and the environment was clean. Our study indicates that in the pre-monsoon season in&nbsp; 2020, Iron metal was highest, and in post-monsoon, Chromium was the highest. In the Post-monsoon season 2020, Iron metal was the highest, and Lead was the highest in the post-monsoon season. Because of the covid-19 lockdown, the result of post-monsoon 2020 shows the low concentration of heavy metals.</p> Prachi Talsania, Dr. Archana Mankad Copyright (c) 2022 VIDYA - A JOURNAL OF GUJARAT UNIVERSITY https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/16 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A REVIEW ON MANGROVES AND ITS THREATS https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/24 <p>Mangroves are a very important ecosystem of the earth it provides habitat for fauna and flora. It protects the coastal area from degradation. It helps for groundwater recharge, reduces soil erosion protects the coastal areas from tides. Mangroves act as purification of polluted water that comes from rivers or streams to the sea, it absorbs heavy metals from the polluted water and protect the seawater from being polluted. It is very important to plant from marine vegetation.</p> Juhi Gajjar, Bhoomi Prajapati, Dr. Hitesh Solanki Copyright (c) 2022 VIDYA - A JOURNAL OF GUJARAT UNIVERSITY https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/24 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 પરિષ્કૃત કવિતાનો એક બળૂકો આવજ: 'પોળોનાં જંગલોમાં' https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/83 <p>જીવનનાં પરિવર્તનો સાહિત્યના પરિવર્તનો છે. અને સાહિત્ય સાથે જીવનનો સંબંધ અનેક તબક્કે અનેક રીતે અનુબંધાયેલો છે. જે નિતનવાં સ્વરૂપોના વિવિધ આકારમાં પ્રગટે છે. ગુજરાતી સાહિત્યમાં વીસમી સદીમાં આઠમા-નવમા દાયકાની કવિતા આધુનિકતાવાદી કવિતાથી અભિવ્યક્તિ-રીતિથી કૈંક અનુસંધાન રાખી ભાવ-સંવેદન તથા ભાષાયોજના આદિ બાબતે એક મહત્ત્વનું સ્થિત્યંતર સાધે છે. તેને પરિષ્કૃતિના સિદ્ધાંતકારોએ ગુજરાતી ચેતનાને આવિષ્કૃત કરતી પરિષ્કૃત કવિતા તરીકે પ્રમાણી.</p> Dhruvinkumar Ramanbhai Patel Copyright (c) 2022 VIDYA - A JOURNAL OF GUJARAT UNIVERSITY https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/83 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 MENTAL HEALTH ASSESSMENT AMONG DENTAL PROFESSIONALS DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC IN GUJARAT, INDIA https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/13 <p>Background: The novel Coronavirus-2 (SARS- Cov-2) is an easily transmissible disease and the fear of contracting COVID-19 is prevalent among the dentists leading to negative psychological effect. Healthcare professionals, particularly dentists, are at a higher risk of contracting COVID-19, because of working in close proximity with the infected patients as well as exposure to aerosol generating procedures. The purpose of this study was to see how COVID-19 fear affected the mental health of dental practitioners in Gujarat, India.</p> <p>Materials and method: This study was conducted using 3 standardized scales to assess fear of contracting COVID-19 and its association with developing stress and depression amongst the dental professionals. The survey was conducted virtually on the google forms platform. 767 dentists participated in this study. Correlation was done using Pearson correlation between the socio-demographic factors and fear of COVID-19 scale, perceived stress scale and patient health questionnaire-9 scale to assess the mental health.</p> <p>Results: The results showed that the fear of contracting COVID-19, associated stress and depression was more prevalent amongst the individuals belonging to a younger age group having fewer years of work experience involving BDS graduates, consultants and private practitioners.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> A positive correlation was observed between the fear of COVID-19 and developing stress and depressive symptoms leading to negative mental health outcomes among the dental professionals of Gujarat, India.</p> <p> </p> Pankti Shukla, Somil Mathur, Rakesh Makwana, Trishala Patel, Thanmai Taduri Copyright (c) 2022 VIDYA - A JOURNAL OF GUJARAT UNIVERSITY https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/13 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 STUDY OF LEATHER ALTERNATIVE FROM BACTERIAL CELLULOSE- A REVIEW https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/66 <p>Leather study is a field in archaeology. This study focus on the production of vegan leather from SCOBY (symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast). SCOBY requires carbon source, oxygen and statistical conditions for fermentation, it is kept especially away from direct sunlight because it effects fermentation process. First process is culture of SCOBY called mother SCOBY and end product is baby SCOBY produced from mother SCOBY. Vegan leather has many advantages as they are eco-friendly, zero waste producing, sustainable, biodegradable, non-toxic, low cost product, and have low carbon footprint. Vegan leather is alternative source of plastic packaging material. In this review efforts have been made to explore the wide scope of vegan leather and practices in this field across the world.</p> Bhavyaben Radadiya, Madhavi Singh, Bharat Maitreya Copyright (c) 2022 VIDYA - A JOURNAL OF GUJARAT UNIVERSITY https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/66 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 CONSUMER PERCEPTION TOWARDS M-COMMERCE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO GUJARAT https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/118 <p>This study aims to investigate the key factors influencing consumers' perceptions of m-Commerce in Gujarat, with a focus on the roles of social influence, trust, and perceived cost. This study's sample size is 434 people, with a valid response rate of 78.91 percent. The proposed research model was tested using simultaneous multiple regression. According to the findings, perceived usefulness, social influence, and trust have a significant positive impact on customers' intentions, whereas perceived cost has a significant negative impact on consumer perception of m-commerce use. Furthermore, perceived ease of use has a negligible impact on consumers' attitudes toward m-commerce in Gujarat. The generalizability of this study's findings is limited: 1) Because this study is limited to Gujarat; 2) Other potential variables are not included in the model.</p> Parmar Maulik Kirankumar, Dr Hasmukhkumar Ghelani Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/118 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A REVIEW ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT BY CONSTRUCTING GREEN BUILDINGS IN INDIA https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/69 <p><em>Since the late twentieth century, the construction industry has seen significant transformation. Because the demand for housing is expanding in tandem with population growth, it must be met with all available resources. The energy resources available to humanity, on the other hand, are limited and fast dwindling. In the long run, this will have a huge impact on the situation because the demand cannot be met with the available resources. As a result, resources will be depleted to a large level, causing serious problems. There are several alternatives for dealing with this scenario. Green building construction is a viable option that can be employed instead of traditional construction because it is more energy efficient. In general, the cost of constructing a green building is more than that of a conventional building, but the overall cost of the building, including upkeep, is lower. This research study focuses on the numerous facts and trends available for study about green construction, as well as the comparison between sustainable and conventional building.</em></p> Nirali Patel, Roshni Patel, Bharat Maitrey Copyright (c) 2022 VIDYA - A JOURNAL OF GUJARAT UNIVERSITY https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/69 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A REVIEW - IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES IN SOIL QUALITY https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/60 <p>The basic need of human beings for survival is food, clothes, and shelter which is completed through the medium of soil. Soil quality plays most important role in global cultivation of funnel wheat, rice, juvar, sugarcane, groundnut, vegetables, fruits, etc. For perception of physico-chemical properties of any soil is very important for good quality and quantity of food yielding. By this analysis the farmers are aware from economic productivity. Physico-chemical analysis of soil is consistent with the different parameters which include pH, Electric conductivity, Moisture, Texture, Temperature, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, Soil Organic Matter, etc.<br /><br /></p> Arzoo Patel, Roshni Patel, Bharat Maitrey Copyright (c) 2022 VIDYA - A JOURNAL OF GUJARAT UNIVERSITY https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/60 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 BIODIVERSITY AND ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENTS: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO COMMUNITY CONSERVED SACRED GROVES IN BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND CLIMATE RESILIENCE https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/99 <p>Forest remnants that have been kept for their spiritual and religious importance are called sacred groves. The practise became more important as agriculture spread, resulting in extensive deforestation that negatively impacted watersheds and biodiversity. Although they may be less prominent today, sacred groves are nonetheless important in rural Indian landscapes home to traditional people. Despite having a pan-Indian distribution, this tradition has recently attracted more attention, leading scientists to concentrate their research on India's northeast, Western Ghats, and east coast either for their global/regional significance or unique habitats. Lower life forms were badly disregarded while the majority of studies focussed on flora, primarily angiosperms, and vertebrates in the faunal studies. Despite the fact that there are observations, there are little studies on how ecosystems function.</p> Dr. Vaishakhi Thaker Copyright (c) 2022 VIDYA - A JOURNAL OF GUJARAT UNIVERSITY https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/99 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 THE INFLUENCE OF INTERNET ADDICTION ON GENERAL HEALTH AND COPING STRESS AMONG YOUNG ADULTS https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/95 <p><strong><em>Aim</em></strong><strong>:</strong> Internet addiction is referred to as a form of technology addiction (such as computer addiction) and sub category of behavioural addictions (such as obsessive gambling addiction). (Griffiths, 1999). Stress is defined as “the non-specific response of the body to any demand for change”. (Hans Salye, 1936). Coping with stress is the process by which a person consciously attempts to master, minimize, or tolerate stressors and problems in life. Health is defined as a condition of complete bodily, mental, and social health, not only the absence of disease or disability. (WHO, 1948). The study aimed to investigate the influence of internet addiction on general health and coping stress among young adults.<strong> <em>Methods:</em></strong> The study was conducted on 120 participants between the ages of 18 to 25, out of which 60 were females and 60 were males, through purposive sampling techniques. A social demographic questionnaire, Internet Addiction Test (IAT) (Young, 1998), Brief Cope Scale (Carver, 1982) and General Health Questionnaire (Goldberg, 1972) were used to gather information. Data were analyzed by using one way ANOVA, mean, standard deviation and Pearson product moment correlation.<strong><em> Result: </em></strong>The results shows that there is a significant difference in the level of internet addiction and coping stress among young adults across their gender. there is no significant difference in the level of general health among young adults across their gender. There is no significant relationship between internet addiction and coping stress. There is no significant relationship between internet addiction and general heath. And there is no significant relationship between general health and coping stress.</p> Nayana Mohan, Sannet Thomas Copyright (c) 2022 VIDYA - A JOURNAL OF GUJARAT UNIVERSITY https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/95 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A REVIEW ON VITAMINS: IT’S BIOLOGICAL ROLE AND DEFICIENCIES IN HUMANS https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/57 <p>The study focused on the benefits of vitamins and the diseases and health issues that come with their shortage. Vitamin deficits pose major health risks because they are essential for human health, growth, development, reproduction, and maintenance. Thirteen vitamins are real vitamins that can be divided into two categories: water soluble and fat soluble. Vitamins A, E, K, and D are fat soluble, and vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12, and C are water soluble. Micronutrients are vital components that humans and other organisms require in variable amounts throughout their lives to coordinate a variety of physiological activities and maintain good health. Essential nutrients can’t be generated in humans or can’t be synthesised in significant levels, thus they have to be received from diet. These vitamins can be found in a variety of foods, including plant and animal sources. For good health and development, they must consume a balanced diet on a regular basis. Vitamin shortages are linked to major health issues, as well as delays in normal development and growth.</p> Axita Vora, Prachi Patel, Payal Gohel, Parth Mistry, Zalak Rathod, Prof. Meenu Saraf Copyright (c) 2022 VIDYA - A JOURNAL OF GUJARAT UNIVERSITY https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/57 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A REVIEW ON REPORTED ETHANOMEDICINAL PLANTS OF ARAVALLI DISTRICT, GUJARAT, INDIA https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/37 <p>Aravalli ranges are one of the crucial components of western piece of India which runs from Gujarat to Delhi. The "nals" of southern piece of Aravallis are particularly wealthy in restorative plant diversity. This paper concentrates on worries huge ethno-veterinary data on plants customarily utilized by the natives. The species were organized family tight clamp as per the verdure of Gujarat state. Data were gathered from the tribals and neighborhood individuals living in the villages of the remote backwoods area. Ethnobotany is a fundamental technique for research, Suitable for social affair data on the utilization of plants. Millions of individuals in the third world utilize natural furthermore conventional remedies. The herbal assortments of early pioneers and the later ethnobotany played significant parts in the development of new medications for a long time. Somewhat recently interest in this approach declined drastically, yet has risen again during its last ten years, and new foci have created.</p> TABBSUMJAHA MALEK, Krutiben Girishbhai Chaudhari, Bharat Maitrey Copyright (c) 2022 VIDYA - A JOURNAL OF GUJARAT UNIVERSITY https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/37 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 USING CRYPTOCURRENCY IN AFGHANISTAN https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/81 <p>The world is on the brink of rewriting business and monitoring history. It is very crucial to mention academically how Afghan crypto-monitory transactions are taking place. even though it is a soft threat to official government organizations via tax evasion, money laundering, and terrorism financing. The qualitative method with content analysis was applied because the data was in textual form. The data was analyzed through Atlis.ti 9. First of all, the interviews were coded, and then themes were created. The result showed that Bitcoin and Binance had the most users, and there were six types of cryptocurrencies in Afghanistan. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages were highlighted. Lastly, it was highly suggested that the Afghan government have specific laws for general protection and to gain the benefits of the new world of high technology.</p> Mohammad Khawrin, Nooman Zadran, Ahmad Helal Copyright (c) 2022 VIDYA - A JOURNAL OF GUJARAT UNIVERSITY https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/81 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 IN-VITRO STUDY OF Α- GLUCOSIDASE INHIBITION ACTIVITY OF ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS AND CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/45 <p>The increasing population of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) in the world has always been concerned by physicians and scientists due to its life-threatening effects including heart diseases and premature death. Out of them, nearly 90-95% population is having type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), characterised by insulin resistance. The available treatments for T2DM includes inhibition of α- glucosidase present on the brush border of human intestine that controls post-prandial hyperglycaemia by slower the releasing of glucose in the blood. Adverse effects of the available α- glucosidase inhibitors (AGI) such as abdominal discomfort and hypoglycaemia has prompted a search for the newer AGIs from natural compounds. The impact of various plant extracts on the management of medical disorders has recently aroused curiosity of researchers.<em> Alstonia scholaris </em>has set its hight reputation in ethnopharmacological world for treating major health issues including skin carcinoma, lung cancer and also T2DM. Though some research supports the antidiabetic activity of the plant, the mode of action responsible for it has yet to be discovered. At the same time, <em>Catharanthus roseus </em>has also been proved to be effective in diabetic conditions but <em>in vitro</em> study of antidiabetic activity of the plant is yet to be encountered. The presented study investigated different extracts of <em>A. scholaris</em> and <em>C. roseus </em>on α- glucosidase isolated from <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae. </em>The presented research&nbsp; not only gives <em>in-vitro</em> proves of the plants as AGIs but also open ups new pathways in understanding the secondary metabolites as inhibitors.</p> Khushali Thaker, Jaimini Patoliya, Khushbu Rabadiya, Zankruti Dholakia, Rushikesh Joshi Copyright (c) 2022 VIDYA - A JOURNAL OF GUJARAT UNIVERSITY https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://vidyajournal.org/index.php/vidya/article/view/45 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000