• Sujata Cowlagi
  • Vivek Maheshwari Lakulish Yoga University




antenatal, pregnancy, quality of life, integrative yoga protocol


Pregnancy is a unique phase in the life of a woman. This exciting and vulnerable time initiates many changes at a physical, psychological, and emotional level. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of integrated yogic practices on the quality of life among pregnant women. For this pilot study, we enrolled 20 pregnant women who were between 9 and 25 weeks at gestation. Single group pre-post design was used. An integrated yoga module specially developed for antenatal conditions was administered over a 12-week integrated yoga module to the participants. Quality of Life Scale was used as a tool of assessment. Data was collected at base and at the end of 12 weeks after the protocol was administered. Paired sample T-test was applied using SPSS software to analyze this data. Statistical analysis of the data collected, demonstrated that value of t test was 3.177 which was significant at 0.01 level The findings showed that yoga intervention was efficacious in improving the Quality of Life. No adverse effects of yoga were observed among those who practiced yoga during pregnancy. The results demonstrate that antenatal yoga may be an effective intervention to enhance quality of life. More rigorous studies over a longer duration with larger sample sizes would be required to establish a definitive connection between yoga intervention and quality of life among antenatal cohort.


ACOG Releases Updated Guidance on Exercise in Pregnancy and Postpartum, Includes Recommendations for Athletes. (n.d.). Retrieved January 24, 2022, from https://www.acog.org/en/news/news-releases/2020/03/acog-releases-updated-guidance-on-exercise-in-pregnancy-and-postpartum

Adams, J., Lui, C.-W., Sibbritt, D., Broom, A., Wardle, J., Homer, C., & Beck, S. (2009). Women’s Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine During Pregnancy: A Critical Review of the Literature. Birth, 36(3), 237–245. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-536X.2009.00328.x

Babbar, S., & Chauhan, S. P. (2015). Exercise and yoga during pregnancy: A survey. The Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine: The Official Journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians, 28(4), 431–435. https://doi.org/10.3109/14767058.2014.918601

Bacaro, V., Benz, F., Pappaccogli, A., De Bartolo, P., Johann, A. F., Palagini, L., Lombardo, C., Feige, B., Riemann, D., & Baglioni, C. (2020). Interventions for sleep problems during pregnancy: A systematic review. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 50, 101234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2019.101234

Bershadsky, S., Trumpfheller, L., Kimble, H. B., Pipaloff, D., & Yim, I. S. (2014). The effect of prenatal Hatha yoga on affect, cortisol and depressive symptoms. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 20(2), 106–113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2014.01.002

Bhagavad-gītā As It Is. (n.d.). Retrieved August 28, 2021, from https://vedabase.io/en/library/bg/

Bhardwaj, A., & Nagandla, K. (2014). Musculoskeletal symptoms and orthopaedic complications in pregnancy: Pathophysiology, diagnostic approaches and modern management. Postgraduate Medical Journal, 90(1066), 450–460. https://doi.org/10.1136/postgradmedj-2013-132377

Bhartia, N., Jain, S., Shankar, N., Rajaram, S., & Gupta, M. (2019). Effects of Antenatal Yoga on Maternal Stress and Clinical Outcomes in North Indian Women: A Randomised Controlled Trial. 20(1), 5.

Bojja, M., & Jayashree, K. and Vijayaraghavan, R. (2019). Effectiveness of antenatal exercises and yoga on biophysiological parameters like temperature, pulse, respiration and blood pressure among antenatal women. , International Journal of Development Research Vol. 09, 09, 6.

Bolanthakodi, C., Raghunandan, C., Saili, A., Mondal, S., & Saxena, P. (2018). Prenatal Yoga: Effects on Alleviation of Labor Pain and Birth Outcomes. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.), 24(12), 1181–1188. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2018.0079

Bull, F. C., Al-Ansari, S. S., Biddle, S., Borodulin, K., Buman, M. P., Cardon, G., Carty, C., Chaput, J.-P., Chastin, S., Chou, R., Dempsey, P. C., DiPietro, L., Ekelund, U., Firth, J., Friedenreich, C. M., Garcia, L., Gichu, M., Jago, R., Katzmarzyk, P. T., … Willumsen, J. F. (2020). World Health Organization 2020 guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 54(24), 1451–1462. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2020-102955

Bungum, T. J., Peaslee, D. L., Jackson, A. W., & Perez, M. A. (2000). Exercise During Pregnancy and Type of Delivery in Nulliparae. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing, 29(3), 258–264. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1552-6909.2000.tb02047.x

Büssing, A., Michalsen, A., Khalsa, S. B. S., Telles, S., & Sherman, K. J. (2012). Effects of Yoga on Mental and Physical Health: A Short Summary of Reviews. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2012, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/165410

Caldecott, T. (2006). Ayurveda: The Divine Science of Life. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Campbell, V., & Nolan, M. (2019). “It definitely made a difference”: A grounded theory study of yoga for pregnancy and women’s self-efficacy for labour. Midwifery, 68, 74–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2018.10.005

Carlson, K. J., Eisenstat, S. A., M.D, S. A. E., & Ziporyn, T. D. (2004). The New Harvard Guide to Women’s Health. Harvard University Press.

Census of India: Sample Registration. (n.d.). Retrieved September 23, 2021, from https://censusindia.gov.in/Vital_Statistics/SRS/Sample_Registration_System.aspx

Chen, P.-J., Yang, L., Chou, C.-C., Li, C.-C., Chang, Y.-C., & Liaw, J.-J. (2017). Effects of prenatal yoga on women’s stress and immune function across pregnancy: A randomized controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 31, 109–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2017.03.003

Chung, S.-C., Brooks, M. M., Rai, M., Balk, J. L., & Rai, S. (2012). Effect of Sahaja Yoga Meditation on Quality of Life, Anxiety, and Blood Pressure Control. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 18(6), 589–596. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2011.0038

Chuntharapat, S., Petpichetchian, W., & Hatthakit, U. (2008). Yoga during pregnancy: Effects on maternal comfort, labor pain and birth outcomes. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 14(2), 105–115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2007.12.007

Corrigan, L., Eustace-Cook, J., Moran, P., & Daly, D. (2019). The effectiveness and characteristics of pregnancy yoga interventions: A systematic review protocol. HRB Open Research, 2, 33. https://doi.org/10.12688/hrbopenres.12967.2

Cowlagi S & Maheshwari, V. (2023) Antenatal yoga : A protocol for healthy pregnancy International research journal of management sociology & humanities. Volume 14, Issue 8 ISSN 234-9359 Pages 145- 161DOI: 10.32804/IRJMSH

Cowlagi, S., Maheshwari, V., & Jain, D. (2023). Pranav-Omkar, The Primordial Mystic Sound: Significance, Occurrence, Efficacy, and Spiritual Ideals. In A. Mohammad (Ed.), Bharat Vishva Guru in Yoga Education (pp. 91-98). Sports Publication.

Cowlagi, S., & Maheshwari, V. (2023). Exploring new dimensions in Antenatal Yoga Education: Perspectives of Yoga Instructors Based on Global Survey. Indian Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, ..., 34-34.

Cowlagi, S & Maheshwari, V. (2023). Yoga way to better health: Role of yoga in antenatal care-a review: Vol. Chapter 7. ABS Books Delhi Pages 67-77 ISBN 978-94424-55-5

Crow, E. M., Jeannot, E., & Trewhela, A. (2015). Effectiveness of Iyengar yoga in treating spinal (back and neck) pain: A systematic review. International Journal of Yoga, 8(1), 3. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-6131.146046

Dangel, A. R., Demtchouk, V. O., Prigo, C. M., & Kelly, J. C. (2020). Inpatient prenatal yoga sessions for women with high-risk pregnancies: A feasibility study. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 48, 102235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2019.102235

Davis, K., Goodman, S. H., Leiferman, J., Taylor, M., & Dimidjian, S. (2015). A randomized controlled trial of yoga for pregnant women with symptoms of depression and anxiety. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 21(3), 166–172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2015.06.005

Deshpande, C. S., Rakhshani, A., Rakshani, A., Nagarathna, R., Ganpat, T. S., Kurpad, A., Maskar, R., Nagendra, H. R., Sudheer, D. C., Abbas, R., Raghuram, N., Anura, K., Rita, M., & Ramarao, N. (2013). Yoga for high-risk pregnancy: A randomized controlled trial. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research, 3(3), 341–344. https://doi.org/10.4103/2141-9248.117933

Desikachar, K. (n.d.). The Yoga of Healing: Exploring Yoga’s Holistic Model for Health and Well-Being: An Introduction. 41.

Evans, K., Spiby, H., & Morrell, J. C. (2020). Non-pharmacological interventions to reduce the symptoms of mild to moderate anxiety in pregnant women. A systematic review and narrative synthesis of women’s views on the acceptability of and satisfaction with interventions. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 23(1), 11–28. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00737-018-0936-9

Field, T., Diego, M., Delgado, J., & Medina, L. (2013). Yoga and social support reduce prenatal depression, anxiety and cortisol. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 17(4), 397–403. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2013.03.010

Frawley, D. (2010). Mantra Yoga and the Primal Sound: Secrets of Seed (Bija) Mantras. Lotus Press.

Frawley, D., & Kozak, S. S. (2001). Yoga for Your Type: An Ayurvedic Approach to Your Asana Practice. Lotus Press.

Girija, P. L. (2008). Diet and regimen during pregnancy. Ancient Science of Life, 28(1), 40–43.

Glover, V., O’Connor, T. G., & O’Donnell, K. (2010). Prenatal stress and the programming of the HPA axis. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 35(1), 17–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2009.11.008

Gong, H., Ni, C., Shen, X., Wu, T., & Jiang, C.-L. (2015). Yoga for prenatal depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Psychiatry, 15, 14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-015-0393-1

Hu, X., Ma, M., Zhao, X., Sun, W., Liu, Y., Zheng, Z., & Xu, L. (2020). Effects of exercise therapy for pregnancy-related low back pain and pelvic pain: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine, 99(3), e17318. https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000017318

Kinser, P. A., Pauli, J., Jallo, N., Shall, M., Karst, K., Hoekstra, M., & Starkweather, A. (2017). Physical Activity and Yoga-Based Approaches for Pregnancy-Related Low Back and Pelvic Pain. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN, 46(3), 334–346. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jogn.2016.12.006

Kinser, P., & Masho, S. (2015). “I just start crying for no reason”: The experience of stress and depression in pregnant, urban, African-American adolescents and their perception of yoga as a management strategy. Women’s Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women’s Health, 25(2), 142–148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.whi.2014.11.007

Koppikar, V. S. (2008). Garbhini Paricharya (Regimen for the pregnant woman). Ancient Science of Life, 28(1), 37–39.

Liu, N., Gou, W.-H., Wang, J., Chen, D.-D., Sun, W.-J., Guo, P.-P., Zhang, X.-H., & Zhang, W. (2019). Effects of exercise on pregnant women’s quality of life: A systematic review. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, 242, 170–177. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2019.03.009

Mangala Gowri, Ar, S., & Bhavanani, A. B. (2019). POSITIVE EUGENICS: AN ANCIENT INDIAN PERSPECTIVE. 6.

Menezes, C. B., Dalpiaz, N. R., Kiesow, L. G., Sperb, W., Hertzberg, J., & Oliveira, A. A. (2015). Yoga and emotion regulation: A review of primary psychological outcomes and their physiological correlates. Psychology & Neuroscience, 8(1), 82–101. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0100353

Mooventhan, A. (2019). A comprehensive review on scientific evidence-based effects (including adverse effects) of yoga for normal and high-risk pregnancy-related health problems. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 23(4), 721–727. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbmt.2019.03.005

Mooventhan, A., & Khode, V. (2014). Effect of Bhramari pranayama and OM chanting on pulmonary function in healthy individuals: A prospective randomized control trial. International Journal of Yoga, 7(2), 104–110. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-6131.133875

Muktabhant, B., Lawrie, T. A., Lumbiganon, P., & Laopaiboon, M. (2015). Diet or exercise, or both, for preventing excessive weight gain in pregnancy. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007145.pub3

Narendran, S., Nagarathna, R., Narendran, V., Gunasheela, S., & Nagendra, H. R. R. (2005). Efficacy of Yoga on Pregnancy Outcome. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 11(2), 237–244. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2005.11.237

Oakley, S., & Evans, E. (2014). The role of yoga: Breathing, meditation and optimal fetal positioning. The Practising Midwife, 17(5), 30–32.

Oyarzabal, E. A., Seuferling, B., Babbar, S., Lawton-O’Boyle, S., & Babbar, S. (2021). Mind-Body Techniques in Pregnancy and Postpartum. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 64(3), 683–703. https://doi.org/10.1097/GRF.0000000000000641

Pais, M., Pai, M. V., Kamath, A., Bhat, R., Bhat, P., & Joisa, G. H. (2021). A Randomized Controlled Trial on the Efficacy of Integrated Yoga on Pregnancy Outcome. Holistic Nursing Practice, 35(5), 273–280. https://doi.org/10.1097/HNP.0000000000000472

Pennick, V., & Liddle, S. D. (2013). Interventions for preventing and treating pelvic and back pain in pregnancy. In The Cochrane Collaboration (Ed.), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (p. CD001139.pub3). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001139.pub3

Rakhshani, A., Maharana, S., Raghuram, N., Nagendra, H. R., & Venkatram, P. (2010). Effects of integrated yoga on quality of life and interpersonal relationship of pregnant women. Quality of Life Research, 19(10), 1447–1455. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-010-9709-2

Rakhshani, A., Nagarathna, R., Sharma, A., Singh, A., & Nagendra, H. R. (2015). A Holistic Antenatal Model Based on Yoga, Ayurveda, and Vedic Guidelines. Health Care for Women International, 36(3), 256–275. https://doi.org/10.1080/07399332.2014.942900

Rasane, S. R., & Bhangale, K. T. (n.d.). Garbhini Paricharya according to various Samhita. 32, 4.

Satyānanda. (2009). Asana pranayama mudra bandha (4. ed., repr). Yoga Publications Trust.

Saxena, R., Gupta, M., Shankar, N., Jain, S., & Saxena, A. (2017). Effects of yogic intervention on pain scores and quality of life in females with chronic pelvic pain. International Journal of Yoga, 10(1), 9. https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-6131.186155

Sengupta, P. (2014). The bliss yoga inculcates during the different stages of pregnancy. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 6, 86–87.

Shim, C. S., & Lee, Y.-S. (2012). [Effects of a yoga-focused prenatal program on stress, anxiety, self confidence and labor pain in pregnant women with in vitro fertilization treatment]. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 42(3), 369–376. https://doi.org/10.4040/jkan.2012.42.3.369

Smith, C. A., Levett, K. M., Collins, C. T., & Crowther, C. A. (2011). Relaxation techniques for pain management in labour. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 12, CD009514. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD009514

Smith, C. A., Tuson, A., Thornton, C., & Dahlen, H. G. (2020). The safety and effectiveness of mind body interventions for women with pregnancy induced hypertension and or preeclampsia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 52, 102469. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102469

Styles, A., Loftus, V., Nicolson, S., & Harms, L. (2019). Prenatal yoga for young women a mixed methods study of acceptability and benefits. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 19, 449. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-019-2564-4

Sun, Y.-C., Hung, Y.-C., Chang, Y., & Kuo, S.-C. (2010). Effects of a prenatal yoga programme on the discomforts of pregnancy and maternal childbirth self-efficacy in Taiwan. Midwifery, 26(6), e31-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2009.01.005

Sustainable Development Goals | UNDP in India. (n.d.). UNDP. Retrieved January 24, 2022, from https://www.in.undp.org/content/india/en/home/sustainable-development-goals.html

Telles, S., & Singh, N. (2013). A review of the use of yoga in breathing disorders. Recognizing and Treating Breathing Disorders: A Multidisciplinary Approach, 275–282. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-7020-4980-4.00027-7

Toosi, M., Akbarzadeh, M., Sharif, F., & Zare, N. (2014). The Reduction of Anxiety and Improved Maternal Attachment to Fetuses and Neonates by Relaxation Training in Primigravida Women. Women’s Health Bulletin, 1(1). https://doi.org/10.17795/whb-18968

Vivekananda, S. (n.d.). Patanjali yoga sutras. 143.

Wadhwa, Y., Alghadir, A. H., & Iqbal, Z. A. (2020). Effect of Antenatal Exercises, Including Yoga, on the Course of Labor, Delivery and Pregnancy: A Retrospective Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(15), 5274. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155274

Wang, S.-M., DeZinno, P., Fermo, L., William, K., Caldwell-Andrews, A. A., Bravemen, F., & Kain, Z. N. (2005). Complementary and alternative medicine for low-back pain in pregnancy: A cross-sectional survey. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (New York, N.Y.), 11(3), 459–464. https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2005.11.459

WHO recommendations on antenatal care for a positive pregnancy experience. (n.d.). Retrieved January 24, 2022, from https://www.who.int/publications-detail-redirect/9789241549912

Wyszynski, D. F., Hernandez-Diaz, S., Gordon-Dseagu, V., Ramiro, N., Basu, A., Kim, H. H., & Koenen, K. C. (2021). Frequency and source of worries in an International sample of pregnant and postpartum women during the Covid-19 pandemic. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 21(1), 768. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-021-04241-2




How to Cite

Cowlagi, S., & Maheshwari, V. (2023). EFFICACY OF ANTENATAL YOGA FOR IMPROVEMENT IN QUALITY OF LIFE – A PILOT STUDY. VIDYA - A JOURNAL OF GUJARAT UNIVERSITY, 2(2), 301–308. https://doi.org/10.47413/vidya.v2i2.278